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Monday, October 3, 2011

Immune Response of Humans.

There are two types of immune response, or rather, what my Bio book tells me so. I was kinda tired of stuffing the facts into my head, so I thought I would type it out here on my iPod Blogger app. :)

Cell-Mediated Immunity:
Cell-Mediated Immune Response
  1. T cells formed in the blood marrow circulate in the blood circulatory system until it reaches the thymus glands.
  2. In thymus glands, T cells differentiate to form T helper cells and T cytotoxic cells, each with a unique type of T cell receptor on its surface.
  3. Mature T helper cell circulates in the blood circulatory system until it reaches an antigen representing cell (APC).
  4. If antigen-MHC complex on APC is complementary with the T cell receptor on the T helper cell, the T cell binds to the APC.
  5. T helper cell that binds with APC secretes interleukin 1.
  6. Interleukin 1 stimulates production of interleukin 2.
  7. Interleukin 2 stimulates the division of T helper cells and T cytotoxic cells to produce clones of effector T helper & effector T cytotoxic cells respectively and memory cells.
  8. Circulating T cytotoxic cells bind with complementary antigen-MHC complex on infected cells.
  9. Effector T cytotoxic cells release perforin that perforated the infected cells to stimulate autolysis.
  10. Effector cytotoxic T cells attacks other infected cells, as infected cell perform autolysis.
  11. Memory T cells respond for a second invasion of the same pathogen by actively dividing to form effector T cells.

Humoral Immune Response:
  1. B cells are formed and mature in bone marrow.
  2. Mature B cells synthesize antibodies, which attach to the 2 tips acting as receptors.
  3. B cells with complimentary antibody phagocytosise the free complimentary antigens encountered.
  4. Antigen is cut into smaller pieces and presented as the antigen-MHC complex on it's plasma membrane.
  5. T helper cell with complimentary T cell receptor binds to antigen-MHC complex.
  6. T helper cell secretes interleukin 2.
  7. Interleukin 2 stimulates B cell to divide and, form clones of effector B cells and memory cells.
  8. Effector B cells produce large quantity of free antibodies with same specific configuration.
  9. Antibodies destroys antigen by precipitation, antitoxins and agglutination.

Interesting how our immune system works, right?
The only problem is, it's only interesting when you need not memorize it for finals!

2 comments:

Kamille Elahi said...

Can I use this blog post for revision? I'm studying this too!

Good luck for your finals!

Daniel Ting said...

sure. why not? :)

what are you taking? A-Levels?